Several studies have been produced on varying aspects of heliciculture including the effects of light, humidity and temperature, stocking densities and parasitic infestations.

While many of these are incredibly detailed (and therefore a little difficult to decipher in some parts) they are marvelous resources to understand the complexity in raising snails. While seemingly simple animals to raise, all the factors mentioned above, plus a myriad of others, will affect the quality and quantity of the snails you raise. Raising methods, environmental conditions and overall goals will have dramatic impacts on how you decide to go about constructing and operating your farm as well.

This is a constantly changing list and as such, we know that is never going to be completely exhaustive. If you know of a good resource, please let us know so we can add it to the list!

General scientific papers (PDFs)

Diagnosing and Understanding Angiostrongyliasis, A Zoonotic Cause of Meningitis. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2018, 9, 393-394.

Carbon footprint of heliciculture: A case study from an Italian experimental farm. Agricultural Systems. 142 (2016) pp 99-111. Annachiara Forte, Amalia Zucaro, Giant De Vico, Angelo Fierro.

Growth, mortality, and feeding rates of the snail Helix aspersa at different population densities in the laboratory, and the depression of activity of Helicid snails by other individuals, or their mucus. Journal of Molluscan Studies, V. 48, Issue 3. 1982, pp 257-265. Nor’aini Dan and Stuart E.R. Bailey.

Mating rate influences female reproductive investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis. Jeroen N.A. Hoffer, Dennis Schwegler, Jacintha Ellers, Joris M. Koene.

Tales of two snails: sexual selection and sexual conflict in Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix aspersa. Joris M. Koene.

Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by mucus from the love dart. Joris M. Koene and Ronald Chase.

Technological and economical considerations for breed terrestrial snails Cornu aspersum (Helix aspersa Muller) as Helix pomatia as alternative animal protein source for human consumption towards ecological production and sustainable development. Adrian Toader-Williams and Otilia Buicu.

Economic impacts

Economic Analysis of and Production Techniques of Snails Farms in Southern Greece. Hatziioannous M. Isari, Neofitou C., Aifadi S., Matsiori S. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 2014. Vol. 2, No. 6, 276-279.

General resources and information:

Raising snails. Compiled by Rebecca Thompson and Sheldon Cheney. USDAAgricultural Research Service National Agricultural Library.

Feasibility of snail farming as a model for small urban farms to expand into niche markets for increased profitability.  An interactive qualifying project submitted to the faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute. By Alena Grilla, Chloe LaJeunesse, Derek McMaster and David Morgan.  March 23, 2016

International Institute of Heliciculture (Istituto Internazionale di Elicicoltura)

Gastropod reproductive behavior. Dr. Ronald Chase. Scholarpedia, 2(9):4125.

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. USDA, National Agricultural Library. (Note: you’ll see some duplication on this page of other sources listed above)

Pens and enclosures.

Escargot Passion.

Snail farming in West Africa. Joseph R. Cobbinah (PDF)

A report by the specialized association of snail producers in the Alpine area regions. 2007 (PDF)


Riccardoella limacum, the “slug mite.”

Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails after an outbreak of human eosinophilic meningitis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 8, No. 3, March 2002. J. Lindo, C. Waugh, J. Hall, C. Cunningham-Myrie, D. Ashley, M. Eberhard, J. Sullivan, H. Bishop, D. Robinson, T. Holz, R. Robinson.

Predators and diseases of snails

A study of the effects of aerobic gram negative bacterial flora in snails farming. By M.B. Kiebre-Toe, E. Borges, F. Maurin, Y. Richard, et a Kodjo.